From time to time new methods are used to design buildings, but one thing remains the same. It is the building’s framework, electrical transmission systems, drainage systems, drainage systems, and piping systems that are invisible to the naked eye. Many designers believe that these do not give a building an attractive appearance from the outside. But the “Inside Out” architecture that has joined the world in recent times does the exact opposite.
Pompidou building in France
A better understanding of “interior and exterior” architecture can be found in the study of the Pompidou Center (Pompidou) in Paris, France, where the world’s first craft was created. The building was planned in 1970 when then-French President Georges Pompidou organized an international architectural competition to build a cultural and art building complex in the centre of ancient Paris, France. The architectural design of Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, unknown at the time, was successful, and construction began in 1972. Edmund Happold and Peter Rice, two engineers involved in the design of the Australian Opera Building, were involved in the construction.
The design of Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers was based on the Fun Palace concept, originally designed by architect Cedric Price in the 1960s. It did not follow the inside-out model but gave more space to the use of large free spaces. Accordingly, electrical transmission systems, water supply systems, drainage systems and piping systems are planned to be installed outside the building to allow more space inside. Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers did not forget to colour the above systems more prominently. Accordingly, blue is used for air pipes, green for liquid pipes, yellow for circuit pipes, and red for elevators and lever pipes. Many called the building “Oil Refinery”, “Pipe Notre Dame”, etc. because of the number of pipes visible from the outside.
The building was opened to the public in 1977 and consists of two parts. The first is a three-story section dedicated to technical facilities and services. The other part is the 7-story glass and steel structure, including the interior floors and terrace. Most of the activities of the centres take place in this section. The metal frame of the building has 14 porticos and 13 entrances about 13 meters apart. Each floor is 7 meters high, which makes it feel huge to anyone entering.
The Pompidou Center also houses state-of-the-art art museums, reference libraries, industrial design centres, temporary exhibition spaces, children’s libraries and art centres, the Audio Visual Research Center (IRCAM) and restaurants. It was renovated from 1996 to 1999 and reopened on January 1, 2000. It has been decided to close the building for a complete renovation from 2023. Furthermore, it is scheduled to reopen in 2027 on the 50th anniversary of the building.
Lloyds of London Building
Richard Rogers has not worked professionally with Renzo Piano since 1977. Instead, he starts his own company. Its name is Richard Rogers and Partners. The company’s first contract was to build a headquarters building for Lloyd’s London Insurance Company. For that, too, Richard Rogers came up with an “inside-out” architectural design. It is safe to say that it was a masterpiece that surpassed even the Pompadu building. According to the plan, the Lloyd’s of London building, which will begin construction, will be completed in 1986.
The building consists of three main towers and three service towers enclosing a rectangular space. The highlight is the spacious underwriting room. The roof of the room is 60 meters high and is designed to be illuminated by natural light. Further, using the space of the vertical space, four galleries are created around that space and are connected to each other by elevators located in the centre of the structure. The space around the defence room features open-plan offices. They are designed to be quickly and easily recreated by adding or removing partitions and walls. The upper floors are made of glass and can only be reached through an exterior elevator. This lever movement is designed to be clearly visible to the viewer from outside the building.
The total height of the roof of Lloyd’s London is 88 meters, with 14 floors. The height of the building rises to 95 meters due to the crane used for the construction which is placed as a decoration above it. Unlike the Pompadu building, the various pipelines are not painted in different colours, but they all look silver. As a result, the building looks like a skeleton outside a human body. The building is owned by the Dublin-based Shelburn Development Group, a real estate company that bought the building in 2004 from a German investment bank.
Advantages of “inside out” architecture
There are several advantages to “inside out” architecture. The first is that it saves a lot of space inside buildings. Large buildings consume a lot of space for drainage, electricity, air conditioning, etc., and this method allows that space to be used for other useful purposes. The above systems and elevators need regular maintenance. This architecture makes it easy for maintenance technicians to access them and locate the problem area correctly. This makes it very easy to carry out even minor maintenance without interrupting the day-to-day activities of the building. The location of the above systems outside is also very important for the safety of the people inside the building. These pipelines are designed to be visible to anyone inside the building, so the cost of covering them has also been slashed.
According to Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, in addition to the benefits of this new architecture, it also serves to send a message to the public. It’s the story behind the huge buildings that people who use them need to know. This gives the public an understanding of the intricacies of building design and how they work. They also explain why only half of the land set aside for the construction of the Pompadour building was spent on its construction. They say they not only enjoyed the art of the building but also met people and added to the plan to build the building. Furthermore, they say that a large space has been set aside for this purpose and that large spaces have been created to expand the opportunities for people to roam inside as well.
It should be noted that Gothic architecture became so popular that it differed greatly from Roman architecture and was able to solve practical problems, as well as “interior and exterior” architecture, which introduced a new genre of architecture to the world.
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